The term Antibiotic Growth Promoter (AGP) is used for a variety of drug ingredients that can kill or inhibit bacteria, and are given at low doses below the therapeutic dose (subtherapeutic dose). The use of antibiotics as growth promoters has developed in line with the development of the livestock industry for food. Bacteria that cause infection in livestock can reduce production yields, and the use of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics appears to be effective in improving production yields.
Human health can be directly or indirectly affected by the inappropriate use of antibiotics as AGP in livestock. One study states that the side effects of antibiotics used in animals can spread to humans. For example, the use of chloramphenicol in animals can have a side effect of aplastic anemia in humans who eat the meat of these animals. However, the hypothesis of side effects of antibiotic residues in animal meat like this is not considered meaningful.
The harmful effects of using AGP in livestock on human health today are mainly due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonies. The use of AGP in livestock will have an impact on the selection of bacteria which results in the emergence of groups of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans, and subsequently cause resistance problems in humans. With the emergence of resistance to many antibiotics, there will be fewer choices of antibiotics that can be used to treat severe and life-threatening infections. Currently, many bacteria have emerged that are resistant to most or even all types of antibiotics on the market. This in turn will have a major impact on humans who need antibiotics to treat infectious diseases.
The Government of the Republic of Indonesia through the Ministry of Agriculture prohibits the use of antibiotics as a growth promoter for livestock. This rule is effective through January 1, 2018 based on Minister of Agriculture No. 14/2017 which refers to Law No. 41/2014 Jo. Law No. 18/2009 on Livestock and Health, and sanctions apply for those who violate it.
Silbergeld, E.K., Graham, J. and Price, L.B., 2008. Industrial food animal production, antimicrobial resistance, and human health. annu. Rev. Public Health, 29, pp. 151-169.